Vancouver style is based on the requirements outlined in the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers. The online version of this book provides many more reference examples — Reg Erhardt Library’s guide is meant to cover the most common types of references.

For more information on managing your citations, check out our guide to Citation Software.

In-text citation

Use references within the paper to indicate where certain ideas or quotations came from. Vancouver citation style typically uses a numbered placeholder system for in-text references. Number your sources as you cite them, placing your reference in parentheses. E.g.:

One study (1) claimed a link between vaccines and autism. However, other researchers (2,3) have refuted this claim.


For direct quotations or specific ideas that can be pinpointed in the original source, also include the page number. E.g.:

Miller’s theory has since been "…discredited beyond all doubt." (4, p3)


Once a source has been cited within the text of the research paper, the same number is used in all subsequent references to that source. Your reference list at the end of your paper will include everything you cited in your text, in the order that you cited it.

References

General Information

  • Number your references, listing them in the order you cited them in your text.
  • Include all authors.
  • In all titles, capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.
  • In reference list entries for periodicals, list page numbers in the following format: 423–34 (rather than 423–434).
  • For references to journal articles, include the journal’s abbreviation rather than its full title. To find a journal’s abbreviated title, search it here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals

Books – General Format

Book with more than one author:

1. Frommer HH, Stabulas–Savage JJ. Radiology for the dental profession. 9th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2011. 541 p.


Book with editors:

2. Christian P, Waterstram–Rich KM, editors. Nuclear medicine and PET/CT: technology and techniques. 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby; 2012. 736 p.


Book with a group author:

3. Canadian Medical Association. Health care transformation in Canada: change that works, care that lasts. Ottawa: The Association; 2010. 40 p.

Note: In this example, the author is also the publisher, and so it is abbreviated the second time it is listed.

e-Book:

4. Canadian Medical Association. Health care transformation in Canada: change that works, care that lasts [Internet]. Ottawa: The Association; 2010 [cited 2011 Dec 6]. 40 p. Available from http://libresources.sait.ab.ca/login?url=http:// site.ebrary.com/lib/sait/docDetail.action?docID=10410827

Article in a reference work:

5. Shiel WC Jr, Stoppler MC, editors. Webster’s new world medical dictionary. 3rd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley Publishing, Inc.; c2008. Macroglossia; p. 255.


Journals – General Format

Online journal:

6. Ghanizadeh A. Can tactile sensory processing differentiate between children with autistic disorder and Asperger’s disorder? Innov Clin Neurosci [Internet]. 2011 May [cited 2011 Dec 3];8(5):25–30. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115768/pdf/icns_8_5_25.pdf?tool=pmcentrez


Note: When citing from a library database, use library permalink (begings with http://libresources.sait.ca/).

Newspaper

7. Goldberg B. Violence mars Black Friday frenzy. Calgary Herald. 2011 Nov 26:Sect. A:5 (col. 1).


Websites

Notes:

  • Vancouver style differentiates between homepages (the main page of a site) and webpages (pages that branch off from a homepage). As in the below examples, you must always first cite the homepage. Unlike with books, if the publisher and author of the site are the same, do not abbreviate the name when you list the publisher.
  • If available, cite the publication date, date of last update, and date you cited the homepage or webpage.
  • All information may not always be available for web sources. If an author name is unavailable, lead with the title of the homepage. If no place of publication is available, use [Place unknown]. If no date is available, omit this information but include in square brackets the date you cited the source.
Homepage
Webpage

Note: To estimate the extent of the webpage, use the Print function in your browser and look at the number of pages it gives.

Blog

Cite a blog as you would a homepage, and a blog entry as you would a webpage.


DVD or streaming video

Note: The NLM style guide does not designate a format for citing motion pictures. We and others suggest adapting the format that you would use for a book, as in the following examples:

DVD

8. Zwick A, director. Love and other drugs [DVD]. Century City (CA): Fox 2000 Pictures; 2010.


Streaming video

9. EMT [Streaming video]. [Place unknown]: Meridian Education Corporation; 2008 [cited 2011 Dec 12]. Available from http://digital.films.com/PortalViewVideo. aspx?xtid=37253



References

1. Frommer HH, Stabulas–Savage JJ. Radiology for the dental profession. 9th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2011. 541 p.

2. Christian P, Waterstram–Rich KM, editors. Nuclear medicine and PET/CT: technology and techniques. 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby; 2012. 736 p.

3. Canadian Medical Association. Health care transformation in Canada: change that works, care that lasts. Ottawa: The Association; 2010. 40 p.

4. Canadian Medical Association. Health care transformation in Canada: change that works, care that lasts [Internet]. Ottawa: The Association; 2010 [cited 2011 Dec 6]. 40 p. Available from http://libresources.sait.ab.ca/login?url=http:// site.ebrary.com/lib/sait/docDetail.action?docID=10410827

5. Shiel WC Jr, Stoppler MC, editors. Webster’s new world medical dictionary. 3rd ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley Publishing, Inc.; c2008. Macroglossia; p. 255.

6. Ghanizadeh A. Can tactile sensory processing differentiate between children with autistic disorder and Asperger’s disorder? Innov Clin Neurosci [Internet]. 2011 May [cited 2011 Dec 3];8(5):25–30. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115768/pdf/icns_8_5_25.pdf?tool=pmcentrez

7. Goldberg B. Violence mars Black Friday frenzy. Calgary Herald. 2011 Nov 26:Sect. A:5 (col. 1).

8. Zwick A, director. Love and other drugs [DVD]. Century City (CA): Fox 2000 Pictures; 2010.

9. EMT [Streaming video]. [Place unknown]: Meridian Education Corporation; 2008 [cited 2011 Dec 12]. Available from http://digital.films.com/PortalViewVideo. aspx?xtid=37253

Last Updated: October 21, 2016 5:01 PM

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